Last year, the new network protocol QUIC was introduced. QUIC is a general-purpose transport layer network with the goal of reducing latency compared to existing protocols. Since the introduction of QUIC, we have seen rising volumes of QUIC-based web traffic in the form of HTTP/3.
As QUIC usage increases, it has become the target of censorship efforts. From the perspective of censors, the emergence of QUIC and HTTP/3 means two things:
- HTTP/3 web traffic looks differently to firewalls, such that censors need to deploy new strategies to detect it.
- QUIC is better protected by encryption. QUIC encryption hides not only the details of the communication but also most of the connection metadata from observers.
From the perspective of the anti-censorship community, the emergence of QUIC comes with new challenges and possibilities: Monitoring developments in QUIC censorship since its launch is the groundwork for developing appropriate censorship evasion tools as early as possible. Beyond that, the measurements provide unique insights into how censorship systems are maintained and adapted to change.
This article is an introduction to QUIC and its potential for censorship resistance, as well as a survey of current QUIC blocking in various countries. The presented findings reveal QUIC censorship in China, India, Russia and Uganda.
A QUIC introduction
If you had a close look at what your browser is doing when you are surfing the web, you would see that, over the past few years, something has been changing. More and more websites are loaded through HTTP/3 rather than the prior versions HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2.
This seemingly small change is actually quite a revolution. HTTP/3 is the first version of HTTP that uses QUIC. As a network protocol, QUIC defines how computers communicate over the internet. Specifically, QUIC provides secure and reliable connections between clients and servers.
Instead of using the Transmission Control Protocol (which earlier HTTP versions used), QUIC builds upon the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and provides better network performance. Using UDP – an already established protocol for sending and receiving messages in an IP network – also made the large-scale deployment of QUIC a lot easier since networking devices are already used to this kind of network traffic.
Privacy and security have become important considerations in the development of new internet technologies. QUIC is no exception. It uses built-in encryption which means that TLS 1.3 encryption is mandatory and an integral part of the protocol.
While work on QUIC began in Google in 2013, it was finalized and published as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard in 2021. QUIC is used as the underlying transport for the new major version of HTTP, HTTP/3. HTTP/3 is currently supported by 73% of running web browsers and used by 25% of the top 10 million websites. The wide deployment of HTTP/3 is largely attributed to how large internet companies like Google and Facebook use QUIC for their services and browsers. As it was first developed by Google, the company strongly pushed its deployment. Thus, the story of QUIC is once more a story of the extreme influence large players have on the technical landscape of the internet.
HTTP protocol stacks
Network protocols like IP, UDP, TCP and QUIC define how communication over the internet works. A network protocol is a set of semantical rules describing in what precise way messages on the web are composed, formatted, packed, encrypted, sent, relayed, received, and acknowledged. These rules can then be implemented into software, in any programming language, on any platform.
Network protocols are designed in layers, adding new functionalities with each layer. In terms of network packets, each protocol adds an additional header to the transmitted data (see figure below).
HTTP is an application layer protocol which is mainly used to load websites from the world wide web into web browsers. The main difference between traditional HTTPS (HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2) and HTTP/3 is in their underlying protocol stacks. This means that HTTP/3 uses different network protocols than the prior versions of HTTP:
Left: HTTP/2 protocol stack. Right: HTTP/3 protocol stack.
HTTP/3 data travels over the network in QUIC packets which are encapsulated in UDP datagrams. Meanwhile, traditional HTTPS data is contained in TLS frames which are packed in TCP packets.
UDP provides unreliable transport between ports on source and destination host, so it only has a subset of the functionality of TCP. QUIC adds reliability and connection state, so the combination of UDP and QUIC replaces TCP. Instead of adding TLS as a separate protocol, QUIC integrates TLS-based encryption.
Finally, the Internet Protocol (IP) routes all internet traffic between hosts. Thus, both HTTPS (TCP/TLS) and HTTP/3 (QUIC) data is encapsulated in IP packets labeled with the IP addresses of source and destination.
Potentials for censorship resistance
For the blocking of traditional HTTPS traffic, censors often inspect the Server Name Indication (SNI) which is contained in the very first TLS packet sent by the client (“Client Hello”). The SNI reveals the requested host name (e.g. “ooni.org”) to anyone monitoring the network, and can therefore be used for the blocking of specific hosts.
Early in its development, there were considerations of the potential of QUIC to be censorship resistant. By design, QUIC protects more communication data than traditional TCP+TLS traffic. Unlike TCP-based TLS, QUIC already encrypts the initial packets of a connection. Although the keys of this initial encryption are known to observers of the connection, censors have to do the additional work of extracting the keys and decrypting the information in order to eavesdrop on the information contained in the initial packets. This makes packet inspection more complex and less efficient.
So, while it is technically still possible to censor HTTP/3 connections based on the SNI in TLS, the collected data shows that hardly any censors actually parse and use this information (even when they do parse the SNI in traditional HTTPS traffic).
Additionally, the built-in encryption and authentication makes QUIC traffic less vulnerable to attacks by censors that try to force-terminate connections (“reset attacks”). Consequently, the (likely) only way to block QUIC connections is to drop packets until the connection times out (“null routing”). Since the client will re-transmit lost packets, null routing requires the censor to invest more resources in comparison to reset attacks. The data seems to confirm this idea since the only error type observed for HTTP/3 connections were timeouts either during the QUIC connection establishment (“handshake”) or in the middle of the working connection.
QUIC connections are designed in a way that makes it harder for stateful censors to remember and identify QUIC data flows. The identification numbers of connections can be changed during the encrypted communication. Thus, a censor that monitors connection IDs can be tricked by changing the connection IDs mid-communication.
Moreover, QUIC connections can persist even when the IP addresses of the communication partners change. This feature might also be useful for tricking stateful censors.
OONI Probe QUIC measurement tools
HTTP/3 is supported by the Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI) Probe engine since late 2020, and it has been used in two experimental network tests so far.
urlgetter is an experimental measurement tool which tries to fetch websites to test whether they are accessible or not. urlgetter can be configured to use HTTP/3 or traditional HTTPS over TCP.
quicping is a new network experiment which I developed during my ICFP fellowship at OONI. The experiment sends out a single initial QUIC packet which has no valid TLS payload. This ping request elicits an immediate response from the targeted QUIC server because it triggers the server’s Version Negotiation mechanism.
quicping can be used to test the availability of UDP endpoints (on hosts that support QUIC). If certain HTTP/3 hosts are blocked in a network, the experiment can also help narrow down the specific censorship method: If a blocked HTTP/3 host does not respond to quicping either, it is very likely that the censor blocks any initial QUIC packets immediately.
OONI Probe measurements produce report files in JSON format. During my fellowship, I have developed a toolchain to automatically evaluate QUIC censorship measurements. The evaluation techniques have a focus on comparing HTTP/3 and HTTPS blocking.
If you are curious to test some of my evaluation techniques and investigate HTTP/3 measurements in the country of your interest, try out this notebook.
Find out more details about the HTTP/3 measurement methodology:
- OONI probe-cli urlgetter specification
- OONI probe-cli quicping specification
- postprocessing and evaluation tool chain
QUIC censorship, as of now
I have investigated networks in China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uganda and Venezuela and have found impairment of HTTP/3 traffic in most countries.
Unsurprisingly, the censorship techniques vary between networks. Some censors do not specifically block QUIC or HTTP/3, but they use IP censorship which is rather unspecific and blocks HTTP/3 as collateral damage. Others block specific UDP endpoints (combination of IP address and UDP port) while some even try to inspect individual QUIC packets (“Deep Packet Inspection”).
Russia (AS31213, AS12389)
Since the beginning of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, internet censorship in Russia is rapidly changing and getting more restrictive. Reports suggest that Russia started to block HTTP/3 traffic nationwide on 4th March 2022. During the last week of March, we were able to run HTTP/3 measurements in a mobile and a landline network in Russia.
In the mobile network of the ISP Yota (AS31213), HTTP/3 traffic seems to be generally blocked. However, at least one website, vk.com, a popular Russian social network, is not affected by this blocking.
The detailed analysis of the measurements suggests a likely blocking scenario which contains two separate filters for HTTP/3 traffic:
- The first filter blocks all international HTTP/3 connections that use the most common QUIC version 1.
- The second filter seems to be applied to both national and international HTTP/3 traffic and it inspects the SNI: If the SNI of a given packet is on the blacklist, it cannot pass this filter.
This assumed scenario is in line with recent reports from other networks in Russia: Users indicated that their ISPs use Deep Packet Inspection to parse the SNI from the initial packet and block certain domain names.
Depiction of a potential setup of HTTP/3 censorship in Russia. While the location and order of filters is unknown, this structure is in line with the observed measurements in AS31213 and user reports from other networks.
Between the 21st and 25th of February, I ran measurements in India using a VPN service connected to network AS133694.
The results suggest that there is systematic censorship of HTTP/3 in this network which is done by blocking certain UDP endpoints completely. Follow-up measurements with an allowed SNI and quicping were helpful tools to narrow down the blocking technique.
The blocking of HTTP/3 seems rather unstable, since it is not as consistent as HTTPS blocking in the same network.
In India, ISPs are responsible for implementing state-ordered censorship. Therefore, it is not surprising that when I ran measurements in other networks, the results differed. In fact, some networks (e.g. AS55836) showed no signs of HTTP/3 blocking at all.
Uganda (AS37075, AS20294)
In Uganda, we measured in two networks, Airtel and MTN Mobile, during the month of March. For testing, we used several facebook.com pages as well as the websites of VPN services. Facebook has been blocked nationwide since January 2021.
Both ISPs seem to block HTTP/3 traffic to certain hosts.
Strikingly, both networks have a rather high temporal variance of censorship. Over the span of only a few days, the amount of HTTP/3 blocking as well as the observed blocking methods frequently changed. While the extent of this variance is unclear to me, it may be a sign that ISPs in Uganda do not have a stable way to handle HTTP/3 traffic yet and seem to be experimenting in this new territory.
Up until this point, measurements had only recorded QUIC interference in the form of timeouts during the handshake, i.e. during the connection establishment. But when measuring in Uganda, on some days timeouts exclusively occurred on working QUIC connections (i.e., after the handshake).
China deploys a centralized censorship system, colloquially known as the Great Firewall. I have conducted measurements from a VPS in China which I was able to use thanks to GreatFire.org. The measurements show that many blocked HTTPS websites are not available over HTTP/3 either.
This data and other current research suggests that the Great Firewall blacklists IP addresses of unwanted websites, which is a very broad and unspecific form of censorship. As many Google domains are targeted by IP blocking, a lot of QUIC traffic is affected by these blocks as well (a large portion of QUIC-supporting hosts belong to Google).
This form of IP-blocking affects all protocols that use IP, so any connection attempt over HTTPS or HTTP/3 to a blocked IP address will not work. However, I found no evidence that the Great Firewall specifically targets QUIC or HTTP/3.
It may seem surprising that the Great Firewall, which is known to apply very restrictive and rather sophisticated blocking, does not explicitly block HTTP/3 yet. But there are a few considerations to keep in mind:
a) While the usage of HTTP/3 is increasing, it is not used as much as HTTPS so it may seem less important to the censor.
b) By default browsers always do an HTTPS request first in order to find out whether a website even uses HTTP/3. Thus, blocking HTTPS is enough for censors to prevent browser-based QUIC usage at the moment. At least for the default usage. That is to say, you can force the browser to use HTTP/3 immediately without trying HTTPS first.
Iran (AS60178, AS58224, AS197207)
We have run measurements in multiple networks in Iran, including the ISPs of the previously state-owned Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI). Overall, it seems like HTTP/3 traffic was not affected by censorship in any of the investigated networks in Iran.
This is curious, with respect to the fact that our prior study revealed QUIC censorship in Iran in 2021. This might be an example of how dynamic QUIC censorship deployment is at the moment. As censors still adapt to this new protocol, inconsistencies and changes in QUIC censorship are to be expected.
Kazakhstan and Venezuela (AS48716, AS8048)
There was no indication for systematic HTTP/3 censorship in the tested networks in Kazakhstan and Venezuela. For Kazakhstan, this corresponds to HTTP/3 measurements taken last year. For Venezuela, there were no prior HTTP/3 measurements.
I assume the censors have not implemented any HTTP/3 blocking rules yet. Due to the novelty of the protocol and the still rather low deployment in comparison to HTTPS, this is not too surprising but likely to change in the future when HTTP/3 deployment further increases.
Final thoughts: What to expect from censors and how to prepare
Last year, in early 2021, we did the first QUIC censorship measurements with OONI Probe. We only found two networks in one country (Iran) where it seemed like HTTP/3 was specifically blocked. Only one year later, most networks we measured in showed some kind of HTTP/3 specific blocking. In Russia, we have even observed multiple layers of HTTP/3 censorship and Deep Packet Inspection of QUIC packets (SNI blocking). While the censorship methodologies appear to be unstable in many networks still, this is clearly showing that HTTP/3 censorship is increasing proportionally to HTTP/3 usage.
QUIC is a reality that the anti-censorship community has to be aware of in order to better monitor and fight censorship in the future.
With that in mind, I have defined approaches for QUIC censorship evasion which refer back to QUIC’s potentials for censorship resistance.