The project generated detailed studies of information controls in Lesotho, Rwanda and Angola.

The project generated detailed studies of information controls in LesothoRwanda, and Angola. These studies focused on periods around elections. The project also contributed to analyzing Gambias network shutdown. The results of this research were presented in various forums, both academic and non-academic.

Addressed problems

  • Blocking, filtering, or modification of political, social, and/or religious content (including apps)
  • Technical attacks against government critics, journalists, and/or human rights organizations (Cyberattacks)
  • Restrictive Internet filtering by technical methods (IP blocking, DNS filtering, TCP RST, DPI, etc.)
  • Localized or nationwide communications shut down or throttling (Blackouts)
  • Pro-government manipulation of online discussions (propaganda, imitation content, and/or sockpuppets)
  • Repressive surveillance or monitoring of communication
  • Policies, laws, or directives that increase surveillance, censorship, and punishment


  • Research


  • Advocacy groups/NGOs
  • General public
  • Activists
  • Academia

Region(s) archive

  • Eastern Africa
  • Western Africa
  • Southern Africa


  • Angola
  • Rwanda
  • Lesotho
  • Congo (Kinshasa)
  • Gambia

Technology attributes

  • Not applicable